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Forumsdiskussionen, die den Suchbegriff enthalten mercury fulminate - das Knallquecksilber Letzter Beitrag: Your eye is filled with fluids that help maintain a certain pres… 5 Antworten Mercury intrusion porosimetry; Mercury porosimetry - Quecksilberporosimeter; Quecksilber-Porosimeter Letzter Beitrag: Mercurialis perennis Letzter Beitrag: Mercurialis annua Letzter Beitrag: Mercurialis Gattung Letzter Beitrag: Quecksilber ist doch nicht blau?
Und der Planet auch nicht Quecksilber ist mindestens seit der Antike bekannt. Vom Altertum bis ins Jahrhundert  wurde es als Heilmittel verwendet aufgrund seiner Toxizität , die zuerst von dem Arzt und Empiriker Herakleides von Tarent berichtet  wurde, jedoch mit entsprechend negativen Folgen.
Quecksilber wurde in der Antike durch Verreiben von Zinnober mit Essig oder durch Erhitzen von Zinnober über ein Sublimationsverfahren gewonnen.
Vitruv war bereits die Legierung des Quecksilbers mit Gold bekannt. Diese wurde zum Feuervergolden von Gegenständen benutzt, wobei das Quecksilber verdampfte.
Paracelsus war der erste Arzt, der Präzipitate und basische Quecksilbersalze herstellte und als Heilmittel verwendete. Jahrhundert wurde Quecksilber wirtschaftlich bedeutungsvoll, weil es zur Gewinnung von Silber aus Silbererzen über Amalgambildung benötigt wurde.
Bereits in Altertum und Mittelalter wurde Quecksilber medizinisch verwendet. Jahrhundert hielt man Quecksilber für ein geeignetes Medikament gegen Frauenleiden , weswegen es zum Teil in toxischen Mengen verabreicht wurde.
Vom Ende des Jahrhunderts waren Quecksilberpräparate wie die graue Quecksilbersalbe oder das Asurol   weit verbreitete Mittel zur Behandlung der Syphilis zuletzt auch in Kombination mit Arsenverbindungen wie Arsphenamin ; siehe auch Biometallorganische Chemie.
Syphilis galt als Volksseuche und Anspielungen auf die Symptome der Syphilis sowie der damit einhergehenden Quecksilbervergiftung finden sich in vielen literarischen Werken der damaligen Zeit.
Metallisches Quecksilber diente im gleichen Zeitraum zur Behandlung von Darmverschlüssen. Der Patient nahm dazu oral mehrere Kilogramm metallisches Quecksilber auf, um das Hindernis im Darm zu überwinden.
Früher hatten fast alle Merfen -Präparate, auch Lutschtabletten, als Wirkstoff die etwa als wirksam entdeckte organische Quecksilberverbindung Phenylmercuriborat , während diese heute alle quecksilberfrei sind.
Ebenfalls antiseptisch wirkte Merbromin im nur bis zugelassenen Mercurochrom. Die Nähe zum Siedepunkt von Helium trug dabei zwar zur Entdeckung bei, ist jedoch rein zufällig.
In der griechischen Antike symbolisierte das Quecksilber sowohl den Gott Hermes als auch den zugehörigen Planeten.
Dies wurde später von den Römern und den Alchemisten für den gleichgesetzten Gott Mercurius übernommen. Daher ist im Lateinischen mercurius und im Englischen mercury sowohl die Bezeichnung für das Quecksilber als auch für den Planeten und den Gott.
Als alternative Bezeichnung für das Metall wird im Englischen aber auch quicksilver verwendet. Quecksilber wurde in der Alchemie verwendet, um Metalle zu veredeln.
So sollte durch Quecksilberzusatz aus Kupfer Silber entstehen. Angestrebt wurde auch eine Verfestigung des Quecksilbers, die fixatio mercurii , beispielsweise beschrieben im Jahrhundert durch Hans Kluge durch physikalisch-chemische Behandlung einer Mischung von Quecksilber mit Kupfervitriol, der weitere Zusätze wie Weinstein, Salpeter und Glaspulver beigefügt wurden.
Für die mittelalterlichen Alchemisten waren Quecksilber, Schwefel und Salz die drei grundlegenden Elemente.
Das Einhorn symbolisierte das Quecksilber. Seltener kommt Quecksilber auch gediegen vor. Ein anderes Mineral ist Belendorffit CuHg.
In diesen ist etwa doppelt so viel Quecksilber gespeichert wie in allen anderen Böden, der Atmosphäre sowie den Ozeanen zusammen. Bei einem verstärkten Abtauen des Permafrostes, wie es durch die menschengemachte globale Erwärmung erwartet wird, würden biologische Abbauprozesse einsetzen, durch die das Quecksilber möglicherweise in die Umwelt abgegeben wird, wo es u.
Quecksilber wird traditionell in Metalltonnen engl. Die Reaktionsprodukte sind elementares Quecksilber und Schwefeldioxid: Weltweit wurde in den letzten fünf Jahrhunderten rund eine Million Tonnen metallisches Quecksilber aus Zinnober und anderen Erzen gewonnen.
Etwa die Hälfte davon entfiel auf die Zeit vor Stand: Es wird manchmal noch zu den Edelmetallen gezählt, ist jedoch viel reaktiver als die klassischen Edelmetalle zum Beispiel Platin , Gold , die in derselben Periode stehen.
Es bildet mit sehr vielen Metallen Legierungen, die sogenannten Amalgame. Quecksilber leitet Strom im Vergleich zu anderen Metallen schlecht.
Kürzlich durchgeführte Monte-Carlo-Simulationen zeigen, dass auch die Dichte des Quecksilbers relativistischen Effekten unterliegt.
Die Metallbindung in Quecksilber kommt durch delokalisierte Elektronen zustande. Diese Elektronen nehmen bestimmte, diskrete Energieniveaus in Bändern ein, die durch die Verbreiterung atomarer Zustände durch Wechselwirkung entstehen.
In flüssigen Metallen wie Quecksilber existiert keine periodische Struktur. Daher ist der Quasiimpuls keine gute Quantenzahl und die elektronische Bandkonfiguration nicht in der Brillouin-Zone darstellbar, wie sonst für feste Metalle üblich.
Durch das Pauli-Prinzip füllen die Elektronen dennoch nach und nach die Energiezustände auf, nur das Leitungsband bleibt unvollständig besetzt.
Die Elektronen in diesem Band sind delokalisiert und bilden das Elektronengas. Auch klassisch lässt sich die elektrische Leitfähigkeit durch diese Elektronen erklären.
Die Antwort auf die Frage, warum Quecksilber bei Raumtemperatur flüssig ist, findet sich in der Betrachtung der Bindung zwischen den Quecksilberatomen.
Zunächst hat Quecksilber eine sehr spezielle Elektronenkonfiguration. Als Element der Gruppe des PSE besitzen Quecksilberatome komplett gefüllte s- und d- Atomorbitale , was eine sehr stabile und energetisch günstige Konstellation bedeutet.
Das Leitungsband ist dadurch leer. Bei den leichteren Homologen Zink und Cadmium , die in derselben Gruppe des PSE wie Quecksilber stehen, jedoch bei Raumtemperatur fest sind, ist der energetische Unterschied zwischen dem Valenzband zum Leitungsband so gering, dass Elektronen problemlos vom Valenz- ins Leitungsband springen können, wodurch eine Metallbindung zustande kommt.
Die Besonderheit bei Quecksilber liegt in dem mit 14 Elektronen vollständig gefüllten 4f-Orbital. Aufgrund der Lanthanoidenkontraktion und des relativistischen Effekts kommt es zu einem Massezuwachs und einer weniger effizienten Abschirmung der Kernladung.
Erst kürzlich konnte mittels Monte-Carlo-Simulation nachgewiesen werden, dass die Schmelzpunktanomalie des Quecksilbers tatsächlich relativistischen Effekten geschuldet ist.
Ohne relativistische Effekte wäre ein Schmelzpunkt zu erwarten, der um K höher liegen würde als der experimentell beobachtete.
Besetzte Orbitale werden dadurch näher an den Kern herangezogen, ebenso das Valenzband des Quecksilbers. Dies erklärt zugleich auch die Flüchtigkeit und die für Metalle untypisch schlechte Leitfähigkeit des Quecksilbers.
Von Quecksilber sind insgesamt 34 Isotope und 9 Kernisomere mit Massenzahlen von bis bekannt. Sieben dieser Isotope sind stabil mit den Massen , , , , , und Von den radioaktiven Isotopen weist nur Hg mit Jahren nach neueren Angaben Jahren  eine relativ lange Halbwertszeit auf.
Die anderen Isotope und Kernisomere haben nur Halbwertszeiten zwischen 1,1 Millisekunden und 46, Tagen. Die thermische Ausdehnung des Quecksilbers ist zwar sehr gering, aber in weiten Bereichen fast direkt proportional zur Temperatur:.
Daher eignet es sich zum Einsatz in Flüssigkeitsthermometern und Kontaktthermometern. Bedingt durch seine starke Toxizität ist der Einsatz heutzutage auf den wissenschaftlichen Bereich beschränkt, es kann teilweise durch gefärbten Alkohol oder Galinstan oder elektronische Thermometer ersetzt werden.
Das erste brauchbare Quecksilberthermometer wurde um von Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit entwickelt. April ist das Inverkehrbringen von neuen quecksilberhaltigen Fieberthermometern, Barometern und Blutdruckmessgeräten innerhalb der EU verboten; ausgenommen hiervon sind Messgeräte für den wissenschaftlichen oder medizinischen Gebrauch sowie Alt- und Gebrauchtgeräte.
Bis in die heutige Zeit ist Quecksilber als Manometerflüssigkeit weit verbreitet. Die Vorteile von Quecksilber sind: Quecksilber ist zwar farblos doch undurchsichtig.
Die einfachste und älteste Bauform des Barometers ist ein stabiles einseitig geschlossenes Glasrohr von etwa 4—6 mm Innendurchmesser, das mit dem geschlossenen Ende nach unten gehalten randvoll mit Quecksilber gefüllt, dann mit dem Daumen verschlossen, umgekehrt aufgerichtet und samt dem Daumen unter den Quecksilberspiegel in einen breiten, halbvollen Becher getaucht wird, bevor der Daumen die nun untenliegende Öffnung wieder freigibt.
In Spezialanwendungen werden auch heute noch mit Quecksilber benetzte Kontakte verwendet, um besonders geringe Kontaktwiderstände zu erzielen oder das Prellen der Kontakte zu vermeiden z.
Solche Neigungsschalter finden sich teilweise in alten Treppenlicht-Zeitschaltern , in Thermostaten von Boilern, in Druckschaltern von Hauswasserpumpen und als Rumpelsicherung in Waschmaschinen.
Quecksilber bildet mit vielen anderen Metallen spontan Legierungen , die Amalgame genannt werden. Eine Gemisch aus Quecksilber und Pulver von Metallen wie Silber ist eine Zeitlang teigig in eine gebohrte Öffnung des Zahns hineindrückbar und härtet bald unter Amalgambildung aus.
Während Zahnmaterial durch bakteriell-chemischen Angriff mit den Jahren schwindet, hat Amalgam die Tendenz, sich durch hohen Kaudruck als Metall tendenziell plastisch auszudehnen und den Nebeneffekt, Bakterien im Wachstum zu hemmen.
Im März wurde im Europäischen Parlament eine Verordnung beschlossen, die die Verwendung von Amalgam deutlich einschränkt.
Ab Juli dürfen Jugendliche unter 15 Jahren sowie schwangere und stillende Frauen keine Zahnfüllungen aus Amalgam mehr erhalten. Grundsätzlich müssen ab dann auch vordosierte Mischungen verwendet werden, um den Quecksilberanteil optimal zu halten.
Weiter sind dann Amalgamabscheider im Ordinationsabwasserstrang vorgeschrieben. Eine Studie soll bis klären, ob um Amalgam völlig aus der Zahnmedizin verbannt werden soll.
Einschränkungen wurden auch für die Industrielle Verwendung von Quecksilber verordnet. Da Quecksilber durch Aluminiumamalgambildung die schützende Oxidhaut des Aluminiums zerstört, ist das Mitführen von quecksilberhaltigen Geräten z.
Quecksilber ist der Gefahrgutklasse 8 — Ätzende Materialien zugeordnet. Eine ätzende Wirkung besteht in Verbindung mit fast allen Metallen, u.
Zink, Magnesium und Aluminium, die im Flugzeugbau verwendet werden.
He knew also that they were in the habit of contributing sacred sums of money from their first fruits and sending them to Jerusalem by the hands of those who were to conduct the sacrifices.
And in the reign of Tiberius things went on in the same manner, although at that time things in Italy were thrown into a great deal of confusion when Sejanus was preparing to make his attempt against our nation; for he knew immediately after his death that the accusations which had been brought against the Jews who were dwelling in Rome were false calumnies, inventions of Sejanus, who was desirous to destroy our nation, which he knew alone, or above all others, was likely to oppose his unholy counsels and actions in defence of the emperor, who was in great danger of being attacked, in violation of all treaties and of all honesty.
And he ordered them to change none of the existing customs, but to look upon them as pledges, since the men were peaceful in their dispositions and natural characters, and their laws trained them and disposed them to quiet and stability.
And then he found no people, whether among the Greeks or among the barbarians, more suitable than the Alexandrians to confirm him in his immoderate and unnatural ambition; for they are in an extraordinary degree inclined to flattery, and trick, and hypocrisy, being thoroughly furnished with all kinds of cajoling words, and prone to confuse every thing with their unbridled and licentious talk.
So that they, very naturally, giving in to all kinds of addresses and invocations to him, addressed him as God, deceiving men of shallow comprehension, who were wholly inexperienced in the impiety prevailing in Egypt, though they are detected by those who are acquainted with their excessive folly, or, I should rather say, with their preposterous impiety.
And the leader of the whole Egyptian troops, like the coryphaeus of a chorus, was a man of the name of Helicon, an accursed and infamous slave, who had been introduced into the imperial household to its ruin; for he had acquired a slight smattering of the encyclical sciences, by imitation of and rivalry with his former master, who gave him to Tiberius Caesar.
You have now an auditor, and a spectator, who is of all men in the world the best calculated to receive the exhibition of your talents favourably.
You are a man of very attractive natural talents. You are able to joke graceful, and to say witty, things beyond any one else. You are skilful in all kinds of amusements, and trifling, and fashionable sports.
And you are equally accomplished in those branches of the encyclical education which are not so ordinarily met with. Moreover, you have a readiness of speech and repartee which is far from unpleasing.
So now, make an exhibition of your learning. What could have been his meaning? But it would seem that he was showing civility to the whole district of the Alexandrians, to which he was thus giving a privilege, when promising to give his decision speedily; unless, indeed, disregarding the character of a fair and impartial hearer, he was intending to be a fellow suitor with our adversaries and an enemy of ours, instead of behaving like a judge.
But while I was thus giving way to despondency and lamenting over my ignorance of the future for it was not safe to postpone matters , on a sudden another most grievous and unexpected calamity fell upon us, bringing danger not on one section of the Jews only, but on all the nation together.
And we, seeing this, were much alarmed and agitated by suspense, and entreated him to tell us what the circumstance was on account of which he said that he had come; for he could not have come merely to weep before so many witnesses.
Gaius has ordered a colossal statue of himself to be erected in the holy of holies, having his own name inscribed upon it with the title of Jupiter!
And we said to one another, "We have sailed hither in the middle of winter, in order that we might not be all involved in violation of the law and in misfortunes proceeding from it, without being aware what a winter of misery was awaiting us on shore, far more grievous than any storm at sea.
For of the one nature is the cause, which has divided the seasons of the year and arranged them in due order, but nature is a thing which exerts a saving power; but the other storm is caused by a man who cherishes no ideas such as become a man, but is a young man, and a promoter of all kinds of innovation, being invested with irresponsible power over all the world.
For it is quite evident that he will pay no regard whatever to things of less importance and which are held in inferior estimation, when he behaves with insolence and contempt towards our most beautiful and renowned temple, which is respected by all the east and by all the west, and regarded like the sun which shines everywhere.
But be it so; we will perish. For, indeed, a glorious death in defence of and for the sake of the preservation of our laws, is a kind of life. For it is necessary that small things must yield to great ones, and that private objects must yield to the general interests; since, when they are destroyed, there is an end of the constitution and of the nation.
But I would reply to such a man, You either have not the genuine feelings of a nobly born man, or else you were not educated like one, and have never been trained in the knowledge of the sacred scriptures; for men who are truly noble are full of hope, and the laws too implant good hopes in all those who do not study them superficially but with all their hearts.
And after a little consideration and delay, we said to those who had brought us this doleful news, "Why sit ye here quietly, having just kindled sparks of eagerness in our ears by which we are set on fire and rendered all in a blaze, when you ought rather to add to what you have told us an account of the causes which have operated on Gaius.
He desires to be considered a god; and he conceives that the Jews alone are likely to be disobedient; and that therefore he cannot possibly inflict a greater evil or injury upon them than by defacing and insulting the holy dignity of their temple; for report prevails that it is the most beautiful of all the temples in the world, inasmuch as it is continually receiving fresh accessions of ornament and has been for an infinite period of time, a never-ending and boundless expense being lavished on it.
And as he is a very contentious and quarrelsome man, he thinks of appropriating this edifice wholly to himself.
Are you making war upon us, because you anticipate that we will not endure such indignity, but that we will fight on behalf of our laws, and die in defence of our national customs?
For you cannot possibly have been ignorant of what was likely to result from your attempt to introduce these innovations respecting our temple; but having previously learnt with perfect accuracy what was likely to happen as well as if it had already taken place, and knowing the future as thoroughly as if it were actually present, you commanded your general to bring up an army in order that the statue when erected might be consecrated by the first sacrifice offered to it, being of a most polluted kind, stained with the blood of miserable men and women.
But all who attempt to violate their laws, or to turn them into ridicule, they detest as their bitterest enemies, and they look upon each separate one of the commandments with such awe and reverence that, whether one ought to call it the invariable good fortune or the happiness of the nation, they have never been guilty of the violation of even the most insignificant of them; but above all other observances their zeal for their holy temple is the most predominant, and vehement, and universal feeling throughout the whole nation; and the greatest proof of this is that death is inexorably pronounced against all those who enter into the inner circuit of the sacred precincts for they admit all men from every country into the exterior circuit , unless he be one of their own nation by blood.
And was there not danger of allies and friends from all quarters arriving to their assistance?
It would be a result of very formidable danger and difficulty, besides the fact that the inhabitants of Judaea are infinite in numbers, and a nation of great stature and personal strength, and of great courage and spirit, and men who are willing to die in defence of their national customs and laws with unshrinking bravery, so that some of those who calumniate them say that their courage as indeed is perfectly true is beyond that of any barbarian nation, being the spirit of free and nobly born men.
With what eyes can we endure to look upon these things? Let them rather be torn out, and let our miserable lives and our afflicted existence be put an end to, before we behold such an evil as this, such an intolerable spectacle which it is impious to hear of or to conceive.
And the multitude was divided into six companies, one of old men, one of young men, one of boys; and again in their turn one band of aged matrons, one of women in the prime of life, and one of virgins; and when Petronius appeared at a distance all the ranks, as they had been appointed, fell to the ground, uttering a most doleful; howling and lamentation, mingled with supplications.
But when he commanded them to rise up, and to come nearer to him, they would for a long time hardly consent to rise, and scattering abundance of dust upon their heads, and shedding abundance of tears, they put both their hands behind them like captives who are fettered in this way, and thus they approached him.
Petronius, we are a peaceful nation, both by our natural disposition and by our determined intentions, and the education which has been industriously and carefully instilled into us has taught us this lesson from our very earliest infancy.
Did it do so that it might be the first or the only temple to be deprived of its customary modes of worship?
We shall think that we are receiving them, not giving them up. We only ask one thing instead of and to counterbalance all of them, namely, that no innovations may take place in respect of our temple, but that it may be kept such as we have received it from our fathers and our forefathers.
We hear that great forces of infantry and cavalry are being prepared by you against us, if we oppose the erection and dedication of this statue.
No one is so mad as, when he is a slave, to oppose his master. We willingly and readily submit ourselves to be put to death; let your troops slay us, let them sacrifice us, let them cut us to pieces unresisting and uncontending, let them treat us with every species of cruelty that conquerers can possibly practise, but what need is there of any army?
We ourselves, admirable priests for the purpose, will begin the sacrifice, bringing to the temple our wives and slaying our wives, bringing our brothers and sisters and becoming fratricides, bringing our sons and our daughters, that innocent and guiltless age, and becoming infanticides.
Those who endure tragic calamities must needs make use of tragic language. But this appears only to be a fiction and fable, the truth being that great, and unexpected, and wonderful events do often bring after them great disaster; for instance, the anger of a master causes death, or calamities equivalent to death.
Their limbs being all congealed, and their eyes becoming fixed so as not to be capable of motion, and their whole body losing all its natural motions in every one of its united parts and limbs!
The intentions of the great do not always continue the same, and those which are adopted in anger are the quickest to change.
We have been grievously calumniated. Suffer us to refute the false accusations which have been brought against us. It is hard to be condemned without being heard in our own defence.
Until, then, we have sent this embassy, do not cut off all the hopes of so many myriads of men, since our zeal and earnestness is displayed not in the cause of gain, but in that of religion; though indeed we speak foolishly in using such an expression as that, for what can be a more real and beneficial gain to them than holiness?
Nevertheless, though he was well acquainted with the disposition of the emperor, and how implacable and inexorable he was in his anger, he still had himself some sparks of the Jewish philosophy and piety, since he had long ago learnt something of it by reason of his eagerness for learning, and had studied it still more ever since he had come as governor of the countries in which there are vast numbers of Jews scattered over every city of Asia and Syria; or partly because he was so disposed in his mind from his spontaneous, and natural, and innate inclination for all things which are worthy of care and study.
Moreover, God himself appears often to suggest virtuous ideas to virtuous men, by which, while benefiting others, they will likewise be benefited themselves, which now was the case with Petronius.
What then was his resolution? If he reads these writings perhaps he will not only not be angry, but will be even pleased with our prudential caution, as having caused this delay not from any regard for the Jews, but for the sake of providing for the collection of the harvest.
And they, when they had arrived at their journey's end, delivered the letters; but the emperor, before he had finished reading them, became swollen with anger, and went on making marks at every page, in fury and indignation; and when he had come to the end of the letter, he clapped his hands together, saying, "Of a truth, Petronius, you seem but little to comprehend that you are the subject of the emperor; the uninterrupted series of governments to which you have been preferred have filled you with guile.
Up to the present time it seems to me that you have no notion of acknowledging that you know, even by hearsay, that Gaius is emperor, but you shall very speedily find it out by your own experience, for you are careful about the laws of the Jews, a nation which I hate above every other, and you are indifferent about the imperial commands of your sovereign.
You fear the multitude. Had you not with you then the military forces which all the eastern nations, and the chief of them all, the Parthians, fear?
Blame the necessity for collecting the crops, and for making adequate provision for my armies, for even if a complete scarcity were to oppress Judaea, still are there not vast regions on its borders of great fertility and productiveness, sufficient and able to supply all necessary food, and to make up for the deficiency of one district?
And why is there no one who anticipates my intentions? He who delays shall first find out that he is receiving the wages of his delay by suffering in his own person.
I will say no more, but I shall not forget the matter. But again, when he saw that he looked morosely at him, and that he kept his eyes continually fixed on him, and on no one else who was ever present, he began to be alarmed, and though he often thought of putting the question to him, he restrained himself, reflecting in this manner: I will relieve you from your perplexity.
And they being commanded to carry him home, bore him to his palace, where he lay for some time in a state of torpor without any one understanding what sudden misfortune had brought him into this state.
Am I with Gaius? Is my lord himself here? You have now had a sufficient tranquil sleep, but now turn and raise yourself, and rest upon your elbow, and recognise those who are about you; they are all your own people, those of your friends, and freedmen, and domestics, who honour you above all others, and who are honoured by you in return.
But a writing will show my request, which I now here offer to you as my earnest petition. And concerning these matters there is no need that I should give you information, since you have a heart-felt love of your own country, and a deeply-seated respect for your national customs.
And what belongs to themselves appears beautiful to every one, even if it is not so in reality; for they judge of these things not more by reason than by the feelings of affection.
And I have kings for my grandfathers and for my ancestors, the greater part of whom have been called high priests, looking upon their royal power as inferior to their office as priests; and thinking that the high priesthood is as much superior to the power of a king, as God is superior to man; for that the one is occupied in rendering service to God, and the other has only the care of governing them.
It, as I have already stated, is my native country, and the metropolis, not only of the one country of Judaea, but also of many, by reason of the colonies which it has sent out from time to time into the bordering districts of Egypt, Phoenicia, Syria in general, and especially that part of it which is called Coelo-Syria, and also with those more distant regions of Pamphylia, Cilicia, the greater part of Asia Minor as far as Bithynia, and the furthermost corners of Pontus.
And in the same manner into Europe, into Thessaly, and Boeotia, and Macedonia, and Aetolia, and Attica, and Argos, and Corinth and all the most fertile and wealthiest districts of Peloponnesus.
It was at Jerusalem, O emperor! And on this account that city deserves to meet with favour at your hands; for, as in families the eldest children receive the highest honours as their birthright, because they were the first to give the name of father and mother to their parents, so, in like manner, since this is first of all the cities in the east to salute you as emperor, it ought to receive greater benefit from you than any other; or if not greater, at all events as great as any other city.
O my lord and master, Gaius! Now, pictures and images are only imitations of those gods who are perceptible to the outward senses; but it was not considered by our ancestors to be consistent with the reverence due to God to make any image or representation of the invisible God.
And thy great grandmother On which account they have been careful not to sow an impious seed, fearing lest they should be compelled to reap its natural harvest, in a fruit bearing utter destruction.
Marcus Agrippa, your own grandfather on the mother's side, the moment that he arrived in Judaea, when Herod, my grandfather, was king of the country, thought fit to go up from the sea-coast to the metropolis, which was inland.
And he could talk of nothing else to his companions but the magnificence of the temple and every thing connected with it.
At all events, during the three and twenty years that he was emperor, he preserved the form of worship in the temple as it had been handed down from the earliest times, without abrogating or altering the slightest particular of it.
Pilate was one of the emperor's lieutenants, having been appointed governor of Judaea. He, not more with the object of doing honour to Tiberius than with that of vexing the multitude, dedicated some gilt shields in the palace of Herod, in the holy city; which had no form nor any other forbidden thing represented on them except some necessary inscription, which mentioned these two facts, the name of the person who had placed them there, and the person in whose honour they were so placed there.
The honour of the emperor is not identical with dishonour to the ancient laws; let it not be to you a pretence for heaping insult on our nation.
Tiberius is not desirous that any of our laws or customs shall be destroyed. And if you yourself say that he is, show us either some command from him, or some letter, or something of the kind, that we, who have been sent to you as ambassadors, may cease to trouble you, and may address our supplications to your master.
And those who were in power in our nation, seeing this, and perceiving that he was inclined to change his mind as to what he had done, but that he was not willing to be thought to do so, wrote a most supplicatory letter to Tiberius.
But it is beside our purpose at present to relate to you how very angry he was, although he was not very liable to sudden anger; since the facts speak for themselves; for immediately, without putting any thing off till the next day, he wrote a letter, reproaching and reviling him in the most bitter manner for his act of unprecedented audacity and wickedness, and commanding him immediately to take down the shields and to convey them away from the metropolis of Judaea to Caesarea, on the sea which had been named Caesarea Augusta, after his grandfather, in order that they might be set up in the temple of Augustus.
And accordingly, they were set up in that edifice. And in this way he provided for two matters: But now the thing proposed to be erected is a colossal statue.
Moreover, then the erection was in the dwelling-house of the governor; but they say, that which is now contemplated is to be in the inmost part of the temple, in the very holy of holies itself, into which, once in the year, the high priest enters, on the day called the great fast, to offer incense, and on no other day, being then about in accordance with our national law also to offer up prayers for a fertile and ample supply of blessings, and for peace of all mankind.
I verily believe that they would rather slay all their whole families, with their wives and children, and themselves last of all, in the ruins of their houses and families, and Tiberius knew this well.
Do not you destroy those things in our councils which remain, and which have been preserved as permanent laws to this very day; for even if no mischief were to ensue from the abrogation of them, still, at all events, the result would be a feeling of uncertainty respecting the future, and such uncertainty is full of fear, even to the most sanguine and confident, if they are not despisers of divine things.
And even if I should be silent, the facts themselves speak and utter a distinct voice. Who is there who is ignorant of this? But do not, after having done so, O emperor!
Dolphins darting mid the trees, meshed in the twisted branches, beat against the shaken oak trees. There the sheep, affrayed, swim with the frightened wolf, the surging waves float tigers and lions: The wandering bird, seeking umbrageous groves and hidden vales, with wearied pinion droops into the sea.
The waves increasing surge above the hills, and rising waters dash on mountain tops. Myriads by the waves are swept away, and those the waters spare, for lack of food, starvation slowly overcomes at last.
As he no other lived so good and just, as she no other feared the Gods. Once more the earth appeared to heaven and the skies appeared to earth.
The fury of the main abated, for the Ocean ruler laid his trident down and pacified the waves, and called on azure Triton. Betwixt the rising and the setting suns the wildered notes resounded shore to shore, and as it touched his lips, wet with the brine beneath his dripping beard, sounded retreat: Their fountains heard and ceased to flow; their waves subsided; hidden hills uprose; emerged the shores of ocean; channels filled with flowing streams; the soil appeared; the land increased its surface as the waves decreased: My kindred in descent and origin!
Dearest companion of my marriage bed, doubly endeared by deepening dangers borne,—of all the dawn and eve behold of earth, but you and I are left—for the deep sea has kept the rest!
And what prevents the tide from overwhelming us? Remaining clouds affright us. How could you endure your fears if you alone were rescued by this fate, and who would then console your bitter grief?
Oh be assured, if you were buried in the waves, that I would follow you and be with you! Oh would that by my father's art I might restore the people, and inspire this clay to take the form of man.
Alas, the Gods decreed and only we are living! And after he had spoken, they resolved to ask the aid of sacred oracles,—and so they hastened to Cephissian waves which rolled a turbid flood in channels known.
Thence when their robes and brows were sprinkled well, they turned their footsteps to the goddess' fane: O gentle goddess help the dying world!
Pyrrha, first of voice, refused the mandate and with trembling lips implored the goddess to forgive—she feared to violate her mother's bones and vex her sacred spirit.
Often pondered they the words involved in such obscurity, repeating oft: Our mother is the Earth, and I may judge the stones of earth are bones that we should cast behind us as we go.
They, descending from the temple, veiled their heads and loosed their robes and threw some stones behind them. It is much beyond belief, were not receding ages witness, hard and rigid stones assumed a softer form, enlarging as their brittle nature changed to milder substance,—till the shape of man appeared, imperfect, faintly outlined first, as marble statue chiseled in the rough.
The soft moist parts were changed to softer flesh, the hard and brittle substance into bones, the veins retained their ancient name. And now the Gods supreme ordained that every stone Deucalion threw should take the form of man, and those by Pyrrha cast should woman's form assume: So when the seven streamed Nile from oozy fields returneth duly to her ancient bed, the sun's ethereal rays impregn the slime, that haply as the peasants turn the soil they find strange animals unknown before: Heat combined with moisture so conceives and life results from these two things.
For though the flames may be the foes of water, everything that lives begins in humid vapour, and it seems discordant concord is the means of life.
When Earth, spread over with diluvian ooze, felt heat ethereal from the glowing sun, unnumbered species to the light she gave, and gave to being many an ancient form, or monster new created.
The God that bears the bow a weapon used till then only to hunt the deer and agile goat destroyed the monster with a myriad darts, and almost emptied all his quiver, till envenomed gore oozed forth from livid wounds.
The laurel then was not created, wherefore Phoebus, bright and godlike, beauteous with his flowing hair, was wont to wreathe his brows with various leaves.
The bow is only for the use of those large deities of heaven whose strength may deal wounds, mortal, to the savage beasts of prey; and who courageous overcome their foes.
Content thee with the flames thy torch enkindles fires too subtle for my thought and leave to me the glory that is mine. And by the measure that thy might exceeds the broken powers of thy defeated foes, so is thy glory less than mine.
There, from his quiver he plucked arrows twain, most curiously wrought of different art; one love exciting, one repelling love. The dart of love was glittering, gold and sharp, the other had a blunted tip of lead; and with that dull lead dart he shot the Nymph, but with the keen point of the golden dart he pierced the bone and marrow of the God.
Immediately the one with love was filled, the other, scouting at the thought of love, rejoiced in the deep shadow of the woods, and as the virgin Phoebe who denies the joys of love and loves the joys of chase a maiden's fillet bound her flowing hair,—and her pure mind denied the love of man.
Beloved and wooed she wandered silent paths, for never could her modesty endure the glance of man or listen to his love.
The nuptial torch seemed criminal to her. I entreat thee stay, it is no enemy that follows thee—why, so the lamb leaps from the raging wolf, and from the lion runs the timid faun, and from the eagle flies the trembling dove, all hasten from their natural enemy but I alone pursue for my dear love.
Alas, if thou shouldst fall and mar thy face, or tear upon the bramble thy soft thighs, or should I prove unwilling cause of pain! The wilderness is rough and dangerous, and I beseech thee be more careful—I will follow slowly.
The present, past and future are through me in sacred oracles revealed to man, and from my harp the harmonies of sound are borrowed by their bards to praise the Gods.
My bow is certain, but a flaming shaft surpassing mine has pierced my heart—untouched before. The art of medicine is my invention, and the power of herbs; but though the world declare my useful works there is no herb to medicate my wound, and all the arts that save have failed their lord.
Lovely the virgin seemed as the soft wind exposed her limbs, and as the zephyrs fond fluttered amid her garments, and the breeze fanned lightly in her flowing hair.
She seemed most lovely to his fancy in her flight; and mad with love he followed in her steps, and silent hastened his increasing speed. As when the greyhound sees the frightened hare flit over the plain: Cover me, O mother Earth!
Destroy the beauty that has injured me, or change the body that destroys my life. He clung to trunk and branch as though to twine.
His form with hers, and fondly kissed the wood that shrank from every kiss. And as my youthful head is never shorn, so, also, shalt thou ever bear thy leaves unchanging to thy glory.
It is the abode, the solitary home, that mighty River loves, where deep in gloom of rocky cavern, he resides and rules the flowing waters and the water nymphs abiding there.
All rivers of that land now hasten thither, doubtful to console or flatter Daphne's parent: Inachus alone is absent, hidden in his cave obscure, deepening his waters with his tears—most wretchedly bewailing, for he deems his daughter Io lost.
If she may live or roam a spirit in the nether shades he dares not even guess but dreads. But the God called forth a heavy shadow which involved the wide extended earth, and stopped her flight and ravished in that cloud her chastity.
She was convinced the clouds were none composed of river mist nor raised from marshy fens. But Jove had known the coming of his queen.
He had transformed the lovely Io, so that she appeared a milk white heifer—formed so beautiful and fair that envious Juno gazed on her.
And Jupiter, false hearted, said the cow was earth begotten, for he feared his queen might make inquiry of the owner's name. Juno implored the heifer as a gift.
Although refusal must imply his guilt the shame and love of her almost prevailed; but if a present of such little worth were now denied the sharer of his couch, the partner of his birth, 'twould prove indeed the earth born heifer other than she seemed—and so he gave his mistress up to her.
Whichever way he stood his gaze was fixed on Io—even if he turned away his watchful eyes on Io still remained.
He let her feed by day; but when the sun was under the deep world he shut her up, and tied a rope around her tender neck. She fed upon green leaves and bitter herbs and on the cold ground slept—too often bare, she could not rest upon a cushioned couch.
She drank the troubled waters. Hoping aid she tried to stretch imploring arms to Argus, but all in vain for now no arms remained; the sound of bellowing was all she heard, and she was frightened with her proper voice.
Where former days she loved to roam and sport, she wandered by the banks of Inachus: And Inachus and all her sister Naiads knew her not, although she followed them, they knew her not, although she suffered them to touch her sides and praise her.
When the ancient Inachus gathered sweet herbs and offered them to her, she licked his hands, kissing her father's palms, nor could she more restrain her falling tears.
If only words as well as tears would flow, she might implore his aid and tell her name and all her sad misfortune; but, instead, she traced in dust the letters of her name with cloven hoof; and thus her sad estate was known.
Art thou my daughter sought in every clime? When lost I could not grieve for thee as now that thou art found; thy sighs instead of words heave up from thy deep breast, thy longings give me answer.
I prepared the nuptial torch and bridal chamber, in my ignorance, since my first hope was for a son in law; and then I dreamed of children from the match: Oh that a righteous death would end my grief!
Behold the lethal gate of death is shut against me, and my growing grief must last throughout eternity.
Thence he led his charge to other pastures; and removed from her, upon a lofty mountain sat, whence he could always watch her, undisturbed.
He called his son, whom Maia brightest of the Pleiades brought forth, and bade him slay the star eyed guard, Argus.
He seized his sleep compelling wand and fastened waving wings on his swift feet, and deftly fixed his brimmed hat on his head: Often she escaped the Gods, that wandered in the groves of sylvan shades, and often fled from Satyrs that pursued.
Vowing virginity, in all pursuits she strove to emulate Diana's ways: Even though her bow were made of horn, Diana's wrought of gold, vet might she well deceive.
If he had told it all, the tale of Syrinx would have followed thus: There she implored her sister Nymphs to change her form: Then without delay he struck the sleeper with his crescent sword, where neck and head unite, and hurled his head, blood dripping, down the rocks and rugged cliff.
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